ang pangunahing wika ay ang mga wika na ginagamit ng malaking bilang ng tao isa isang bansa o lugar
ang mga tingiuan, tinggian, tingui-an, o tingguian, ay pangkat-etniko na nagmula sa pilipinas. pinaniniwalaang nanggaling sila mula sa palawan. ang salitang tinguian ay nagsimula sa salitang malay na tinggi na ang ibig sabihin ay "matataas na lupa".
ang tribong tinguian ay may kuluturang pagpapahalaga sa mga sinaunang pamamaraan lalo na sa pagluluto. meron silang pagkaing tinatawag na punook na gawa sa malambot na parte ng puno ng saging, kanin nila na sinasaing gamit ang kawayan at ang pagamit nila ng mga kagamitang pangkain gamit ang kawayan.
the tinguian are a pagan philippine people who inhabit chiefly the mountain province of abra in northwestern luzon. from this center their settlements radiate in all directions. to the north and west, they extend into ilocos sur and norte as far as kabittaoran. manabo, on the south, is their last settlement; but barit, amtuagan, gayaman, and luluno are tinguian mixed with igorot from agawa and sagada. villaviciosa is an igorot settlement from sagada, but bulilising, still farther south, is predominantly tinguian. sigay in amburayan is said to be made up of emigrants from abra, while a few rancherias in lepanto are likewise much influenced. the non-christian population of ilocos sur, south of vigan, is commonly called tinguian, but only seven villages are properly so classed four others are inhabited by a mixed population, while the balance are igorot colonies from titipan, sagada, and fidilisan. along the cordillera central, from the head-waters of the saltan (malokbot) river as far south as balatok, is found a population of mixed tinguian, kalinga, and igorot blood. kalinga predominates north of balbalasang and along the gobang river, while the igorot is dominant in guina-an, lubuagan, and balatok. tinguian intermarriage has not extended far beyond balbalasang, but their culture and dress have affected the whole region.2 from this belt there have been extensive migrations into abra, the newcomers for the most part marrying with the tinguian, but in the ikmin river valley emigrants from balatok formed the towns of danok, amti, and doa-angan, which have remained quite isolated up to the present time. agsimao and other towns of the tineg group, in the extreme northern end of abra, are made up chiefly of apayao mixed with kalinga, while all the villages on the headwaters of the binongan have received emigrants from the kagayan side. the population of the towns properly classed as tinguian is approximately twenty thousand individuals.